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What is a CNC Router? (Buying Guide)


What is a CNC Router Machine?

CNC router machines also known as computer numerical control router machines is computer-controlled devices used to carve out or cut through hard materials like wood, plastic, aluminum, etc.

CNC routers have varying configurations, from large industrial CNC routers to small homemade routers.

Despite the presence of a varying range of configurations, all CNC routers have specific parts which are all highly essential in the top functioning of these machines;

  • A dedicated CNC controller.
  • Servo motors or stepper motors.
  • A workplace bed or table.
  • One or more spindle motors.
  • Linear gears.
  • Servo amplifiers.
  • Ac inverter frequency drives.
  •  Ball screws.

Additionally, to hold the parts in place for cutting, CNC routers may have vacuum pumps with grid table tops or t-slot holds down fixtures.

CNC Router Machine

The CNC formats usually available in CNC routers are the 3-axis and 5- axis. A and B axis are usually made available by manufacturers for full 5 axis capabilities and rotary 4th axis. 4′ x 8′ and 5′ x 10.’ are the common industrial CNC router sizes.

CNC router VS. CNC machine

A CNC machine is a general word that defines all sorts of machines that are automated and controlled by a computer. These machines include CNC routers, CNC laser engravers. CNC mills and many more. As such, a CNC router is basically a CNC machine. Also, it’s important to recognize that a CNC machine is not a CNC router. It’s essentially a general term for different machines.

CNC router vs. CNC mill

CNC routers and mills differ greatly in terms of performance. Contrary to that, they all have an exceptional ability to cut through different materials. CNC routers to be specific are suited for cutting soft materials such as wood and aluminum with precision. CNC mills, on the other hand, are best suited for cutting much harder materials such as titanium.

Types of CNC Routers

When gathering the necessary information in order to purchase the right CNC router machine for you, it is important to take into account the various types of CNC routers.

Basically, a single CNC Router Machine cannot be able to articulate all the materials alone. As such, different components are needed and they are of two kinds. The Non-metal CNC Router and non-CNC Router Machine. The Non-metal CNC Router ones are further sub-divided into foam milling machines, advertising CNC Router, Wood CNC Router, and Stone Engraving Machine.

The first step for choosing the right CNC Router is getting to know the specific needs of your industry and all the processing materials that you will need to work on. For example, if you are going to purchase a Wood CNC Engraving Machine on stone, it’s not going to work at all.

  1. CNC Wood Routers

These CNC machines are specifically made for wood processing especially furniture. It can be used to make items such as wooden doors, chairs, tables, cabinets, panels, office furniture, musical instruments, solid wood furniture and much more. The materials that are ideal for this type of processing include solid wood, plates, wood substitutes, etc. FORSUN has three kinds of CNC routers that can be used for the wood CNC machine.

ATC CNC router is simply designed with automatic change tool so that it can be used to perform various activities such as automatic engraving, drilling, cutting, milling, sanding, grooving, polishing hardwood, cork, solid wood, foam, plywood, stone, plastic, ceramic, acrylic, MDF, glass, ACM, copper, aluminum, PVC, brass, and various soft metals.

You will find two types of ATC CNC router: disc ATC CNC router and linear ATC CNC router. Since the machine is equipped with automatic changing tools, it means there is no manual work thus saving time while increasing the efficiency of the work done. The machine, however, is suitable for complex work and mostly used in industries dealing with high scale manufacture of furniture, cabinet doors, wooden doors, mahjong tables, computer desks, wooden loudspeakers body and many others.

For this series of CNC router, each machine head is independent and can work separately or synchronously. You can adjust the space between spindles. This means that when you want the spindle to completely occupy the working table, you can adjust and extend it outwards. You can as well change the number of machine heads to 3 or 4 pieces. Compared with a common CNC router, the multi-head CNC router is more efficient and you can adjust the machine to work on a wider panel.

The nesting cnc router is the gantry machining center designed for Nesting applications of wood and wood-based materials, but also plastic based and non-ferrous materials machining

  1. Foam CNC milling machine

This type of CNC machine is used mainly for foam processing of automotive interiors, engineering plastic materials, casting wood molds and automotive stamping molds. It can also apply to other non-metal processing. The materials mainly used are thermoplastic, foam, resin and polystyrene materials, etc.

  1. CNC Plasma cutting machine

The CNC plasma cutter is mainly used for processing aluminum plates, Iron plates, galvanized plates, titanium gold plates, and white steel plates.

  1. Stone CNC Router Machine

The stone CNC router is used for processing different kinds of stone materials. They include marble, Blackstone, bluestone, jade, granite, glass. ceramics, PVC board, bamboo, wood and much more.

  1. Advertising CNC Router machine

The advertising CNC router is mainly used for processing 3-dimensional characters, letters, badges, signs and crystal characters. The materials processed are usually acrylic, aluminum-plastic boards and PVC.

There are two types of CNC router in FORSUN that can be used as advertising CNC router.

Mini CNC router has features such as operating at high speed, high-quality performance, and high precision. They are using a ball screw to run. It converts rotary moves to linear moves hence less resistance to friction.

With this small size machine, you will enjoy low maintenance costs, easy installation, durability, and sturdy construction. Apart from these, you can use the CNC machine to cut wood, foams, MDF, plastic, aluminum, PVC, etc.

Basic CNC router also can be named as the basic/beginner CNC router, they can process various materials like wood, MDF, PVC, acrylic, aluminum, copper is a system-controlled cutting and engraving machine. Used for the production of many different items, such as door carvings, interior and exterior decorations, signboards, musical instruments, furniture and so on. High speed and precision are the key benefits of a smart CNC router.

The smart CNC router has many configurations but the important configurations are system, spindle, motor, and drive.


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